The Anterior Cruciate Ligament is found inside the knee joint and provides rotational stability to the knee. This is one of the most common and major knee ligament injuries, usually occurring when a ligament is torn during a sudden twisting motion with the knee in hyperextension.
Treatment depends on the severity and associated injuries as well as the activity level of the individual.
A rehabilitation program or surgery may be recommended.
The Posterior Cruciate Ligament is located at the back of the knee and is stronger and thicker than the Anterior Cruciate Ligament. It aids in stability for posterior displacement. It is less commonly injured than the ACL and is more difficult to diagnose. Injury is typically caused by force trauma whilst the knee is in flexion. Injuries can range from a stretch to a full rupture of the ligament and usually also damages other elements in the knee.
Treatment depends on the extent of damage and associated injuries that generate instability to the knee.
Cartilage is a slippery protective connective tissue composed of chondrocytes that covers the osseous extremities of each joint, helping to cushion the mechanical pressure that the knee joint supports. Knee cartilage can be injured from chronic overuse, sudden twists or impacts.
Each knee has two C-shaped menisci made of very strong fibrocartilage, providing cushioning between the thigh bone and the shinbone. They are important for joint stability intervening in proprioception, force transmission and also lubrication of the knee. Injury to the menisci is frequent and can either be due to trauma or degenerative conditions.
The patella, (knee cap), sits in the trochlear groove and attaches to the thigh and shin bones by tendons. Instability occurs when the patella slips out of the trochlear groove as you bend or straighten your knee. Acute or traumatic patellar instability and dislocation is typically caused by torsion mechanisms on the knee when in full extension. This is usually accompanied by injury to the internal patellofemoral ligament.
Chronic patellar instability, (subluxation), is where the kneecap partially dislocates and moves out of place when the knee is flexed. It can be caused by extreme activities and sports. The possibility of a second dislocation is high after an initial injury.
Treatment aims to realign the patella and correct the flexion of the quadriceps.
The patella’s main function is to protect the knee joint. Patellofemoral pain, (Runner’s Knee), can be caused by overuse, improper rotation or bad alignment of the hip and knee joints and by repetitive or strong trauma. It is a pain that affects a high percentage of people and athletes and it is the main cause of knee pain in the young.
Distal Femur Fractures occur in the lower extremity of the femur and can be either a fracture located outside the joint, a fracture to part of the joint or a fracture of the whole joint.
Patellar fractures occur in the knee cap, the small bone that protects your knee joint, where the femur and tibia meet. They can be classified as stable, transverse, lower or superior pole, vertical and osteochondral.
Tibial plateau fractures occur at the upper part of the tibia and are a serious injury to the knee joint. They can be classified as extra-articular, partial articular or complete articular.
The most common reason for knee replacement surgery is osteoarthritis which is the result of several factors: age, articular cartilage wearing out, family predisposition, gender (women will often have osteoarthritis of the hands and knees and men in the hips), obesity, repeated micro-trauma from sports or work activity, previous cartilage injuries.
Knee replacement is indicated when there is severe pain, major progressive deformity, loss of joint space and when other treatments such as PRP, corticosteroids and stem cells have not been effective.
Unicondylar arthroplasty consists of replacing only the affected articular surface and this is performed in select cases.
Total knee arthroplasty is performed to relieve pain, obtain stability of the joint, angulation, correct mechanical alignment and restore proper joint line. Total knee arthroplasty can be: